Wednesday, July 12, 2017

Dana Gas Restructuring: Creditors, What Then Is To Be Done?


As outlined in previous posts, the creditors face two key issues with the restructuring:
  1. Obligor Attitude:  If there are not already serious concerns about the obligor’s integrity and willingness to pay, then there should be.  The situation is similar to that of The Investment Dar Kuwait.  Back when it became evident that TID was headed for a restructuring, if not the shoals, its creditors petitioned the Central Bank of Kuwait to appoint an official “minder” to keep an eye on—or more accurately to “control”— TID’s management.  CBK did not.  By contrast creditors did not ask for one in the Global Investment House (Kuwait) restructuring a similarly uncertain large ticket exercise.  As DG is a commercial company and not a financial institution, there’s not even the extremely slim possibility of CBUAE intervention.  Creditors are “on their own”.  That has important consequences for what they should do.
  2. Obligor Aptitude: Glacially slow collection of receivables and an apparent chronic weakness in operating cashflow indicate that the obligor is unlikely to repay principal and interest within the proposed five-year tenor. Factors largely outside DG’s control.  The path was cast when DG embarked on its business in Iraq and Egypt.  Given these facts, creditors are likely to find themselves in another restructuring “adventure” with DG in five years’ time.  Therefore, minimizing that future exposure should be a key goal. 

Что делать? 

In framing this post, AA looked to inspiration from other authors who wrote similarly titled pieces, though hopefully this post is free from excessive utopianism.  As you'll notice one such author is missing.  I believe he was in heated exchange on call-in program with the Governor of New Jersey when I called.

In any case, here's are potential steps that AA believes creditors need to take based on the assessment that protection of creditor interests requires measures beyond the usual ones in a restructuring. 
  1. Legal steps –recast the deal or elements of the deal to reduce/eliminate exposure to Abu Yusuf-ery legal maneuvering by the obligor.  While this is an important step, it will not be sufficient to protect creditors’ interests.
  2. Collateral – get more and to the extent possible, take possession now rather than relying on the exercise of legal rights to deliver it later when Abu Yusuf may have come up with even more clever arguments.
  3. Amortization – use interim scheduled principal repayments plus a cash sweep to achieve reductions.  With DG’s weak/uncertain cashflow getting dollars now is wiser than waiting five-years as the past ten years unequivocally demonstrate. 
  4. TenorsShorten to keep DG’s and your minds focused on repayment.  A five year bullet moves the payment far enough into the future that focus is lost: repayment is a lower priority, particularly for DG.
Legal
Transaction documents are meant not only to set forth the obligations and rights of both parties so there is no ambiguity, but also to provide protection by providing recourse through court ordered enforcement of the agreement if one party cannot fulfill its contractual obligations or decides not to.  DG’s maneuver in Sharjah and other courts to declare the Sukuk contract “illegal and unenforceable” shows the practical limits of that strategy. 
One response would be to change the form of the replacement contract.  If “Islamic” transactions are uncertain, then a conventional (non-Shari’ah) transaction would seem preferable.  If a starving Muslim may eat a ham sandwich in order to avoid death, then it seems to me that if confronted with an obligor that may not be trustworthy as originally assumed and uncertain protection from the courts, a Muslim creditor could legitimately change the form of contract to a non-halal one.  This is important because as shown with the English and BVI courts actions, non-GCC courts are likely to show deference at least initially to areas beyond their competence, e.g., the Shari’ah.
A less severe approach would be to recast the debt obligation into another form of “Islamic” transaction as discussed below.  Perhaps, the transaction could be split into two?  One tranche for only principal repayments in which case Shari’ah or non-Shari’ah distinctions might not apply. Or in other words, the first tranche would be both.  The second an Islamic structure for "profit" (interest), hopefully limiting opportunities for future Abu Yusuf-ery.  Dealing with default interest could be difficult, but creditors are going to have to make some hard tradeoffs following their initial and unfortunate underwriting decision. The ability to ensure cross default would be another key consideration with this no doubt utopian strategy. 
Other actions would be to ensure that entities critical to the success of repayment were incorporated and active in jurisdictions believed to be more likely to give the creditors a fair shake rather than relying on the uncertain existence of a  fair shakyh in local GCC jurisdictions.  Reducing as much as possible the impact of local law on the transaction would be ideal. 
Alternatively, could the DIFC be the jurisdiction for the restructuring suitably structured as an offshore transaction?
But such steps are unlikely to be definitive, even if they are theoretically possible. 
In particular, Argentina’s or the Arab Bank’s recent unhappy experiences in US courts should suggest more than abundance of caution is warranted with reliance on legal jurisdictions as providing a “fair shake”. 
Collateral
On the theory that the “old” deal is dead, then a new deal needs to be struck.  So the door is potentially open to new terms. 
It’s often said that possession is nine tenths of the law.  This should be a guiding principal for the creditors.
A wise move would be what is in effect a pre-emptive exercise of collateral/security rights. That argues for the creditors getting possession/ownership of collateral now to be returned upon full repayment. Transfers of ownership would take place at the inception of the transaction not after a default occurs and potentially lengthy and uncertain legal proceedings are concluded.
A potential replacement structure is a sale/leaseback with DG responsible for operations, capex, insurance, third party liabilities, etc.    DG would sell these assets (by selling the stock in the companies) to the existing Sukuk holders.  The holders would then lease the assets to DG for an x-year period.  No cash would change hands as the “proceeds” of the sale/leaseback would serve to retire the existing obligation.  Sukuk repayment would come from lease payments where perhaps a fixed profit rate would pose less of a problem if Shari’ah structures were chosen.  Upon its successful retirement of the sale/leaseback transaction, DG would have a bargain purchase option to reacquire the assets.
Additional collateral.   Zora is now free from debt and generating cash. It is perhaps the most saleable of DG’s assets.  More (stale) receivables, assignments of proceeds from arbitral awards, ownership of the holding and operating companies for Egypt and the KRG. 
Creditors can expect a robust reaction from DG based on the Trust Assets being the only security offered. 
If no new collateral can be obtained, then the creditors should take possession of the Trust Assets as outlined above.  If the lessee fails to pay, then the bargain purchase option would be invalid. The assets could be sold to third parties in whole or part (the KRG might welcome a discount offer on the receivables) or an “astute” third party might want to embark on an investment “adventure” in Egypt or the KRG. Bon chance!  Of course, DG or its shareholders could be given pre-emptive rights in any asset sales. 
Principal Reduction – Amortization
As indicated in my earlier post, the Company’s cashflow is highly unlikely to enable it to retire the debt over the mooted five-year tenor. Creditors could rely as they have over the past ten years on the Company’s promise for principal payment at the end of the next five-years bolstered by no doubt a rosy projection. 
Or they could more wisely include binding (such as one can bind DG) requirements for principal repayments.
With DG’s uncertain cashflow, it’s hard to come up with repayment scenarios.  But that doesn’t mean that the new deal cannot contain some required interim principal repayments before the final principal balloon payment at maturity.  
A key problem with this approach is that it requires faith in DG’s compliance.  Fool me once shame on you. Fool me thrice – we’ll you know the rest. 
A more prudent option would be to include a cash sweep with the required principal payment structure.  As cash came into a newly established concentration account controlled by the security agent (both account and security agent located in a more reasonable jurisdiction), the cash would be divided by the security agent according to a pre-agreed formula.  This mechanism ensures (subject to there being a cashflow) that creditors are not forgotten. Cashflow for the creditors under the sweep would be directed first to scheduled principal payments and then to prepayments.  That is, the sweep should not be limited to only the scheduled payments, but to as much as can be taken limited only by the outstanding debt amount. The point is get the cash now not later.  Creditors would be wise to eliminate prepayment penalties as debt collection is the key issue they face.   
There is another very real benefit to this arrangement.  Just as taking ownership of collateral at the inception of the deal makes it difficult for DG to frustrate creditor rights so does a cash sweep. Under the cash sweep cash would be given to creditors on an ongoing basis as soon as practical after it were received in the concentration account.  Creditors would immediately apply the cash against principal due.  It should be more difficult for DG to later clawback the cash already “swept” to the creditors compared to making some bogus assertion about the transaction becoming invalid due to changing interpretations and then not paying.  
Shorter Tenor
Restructuring at the same or a longer tenor defers the day of reckoning far into the future, particularly if an inadvisable bullet structure is used.  Far enough so that it’s not a priority for either. To avoid this unhappy outcome the maturity of the debt should be shortened.  The debt could be divided into tranches (cross default protected) with a maturity ladder, i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 years.  Or left as a single amount with 2 or 2.5 year maturity.  This would keep the pressure on DG and hopefully prevent the creditors from lapsing into unwarranted somnolescence. 
The shorter maturities would offer creditors the opportunity to reopen the debt to impose additional terms more frequently as it is highly likely that DG will require more than five years to repay the debt, absent a miracle.  And as AA was once told by a local GCC banker, the only "miracles" in Islam occur in the financial statements of Islamic financiers.

  

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